Safeguarding children and young people affected by cancer: A case history with Clic Sargent, Daphne McKenna May 2014
Daphne McKenna helped prepare this material for CLIC Sargent, customising an approach specifically to deal with particular issues raised by young people affected by cancer. If you have a particular area on which you would like to focus, ask us for help in preparing a tailored approach,
- to revisit the CLIC Sargent safeguarding policy and professional obligations in the light Professor Munro’s review
- to understand thresholds for intervention with reference to the Children Act 1989 and 2004, Working Together 2013
- to build on skills to work in partnership with parents and other professionals in order to share unique knowledge and experience
- to become familiar with signs of safety approach as a means of assessing risk
- to have confidence to challenge families and professionals where concerns are not addressed
Roles and Responsibilities and updates Context
”Safeguarding children – the action we take to promote the welfare of children and protect them from harm – is everyone’s responsibility. Everyone who comes into contact with children and families has a role to play.” Working Together to Safeguard Children; 2013
Role of investigating safeguarding concerns rests with Local Authority ( and NSPCC) and Police
Your responsibility is to ensure your concerns are passed onto CSC
Some recent changes Revision and reduction of statutory guidance;
- Working together to safeguard children (HM Government, 2013) –significantly reduced in size
- Framework for the assessment of children in need and their families (DH, 2000) is in process of being revised
- Role of Chief Social Worker Isabelle Trowler
- support and challenge profession to ensure children and adults get best possible help from SW’s
- provide independent expert advice to ministers on SW reform and contribution of social work to policy implementation
- provide leadership and work with key leaders in profession/wider sector to further improvement and reform social work
- challenge weak practice to achieve decisive improvements in quality of social work
- provide leadership to network of principal social workers to improve practice and influence national policy making and delivery
- Principal Child and Family Social Workers (PCFSW) being recruited by Local authorities- aim to ensure senior manager in each LA will still directly involved in frontline services.
- Provision of “early help” is improving through better interagency working- development of Early Intervention Services
- Removal of statutory timescales for assessment and introduction of single assessment plus focus on child’s story
- College of Social Work succeeded Social Work Reform with aim to improve initial education and continuing professional development.
- Systems approach to learning from serious incidents increasingly being adopted by LSCBS
- Social care departments implementing reforms, including: promotion of reflexive practice, changing supervision systems, using motivational interviewing, using evidence-based interventions, improving feedback to professionals making referrals to children’s social care, and using the Signs of Safety and Reclaiming Social Work approaches.
Children and Families Act 2014
- Adoption – more children being adopted by ‘loving families’ with less delay –‘fostering for adoption’ / ethnic match not a barrier
- Family Justice System 26 weeks time limit, presumption that both parents should be involved in their children’s lives, mediation and introduction of ‘child arrangement orders’ focussing on child’s needs rather than parent’s ‘rights’
- SEN – system extended to 25 years old, statements replaced with new birth- to-25. Education, Health and Care Plan replacing Statements, personal budgets and local offer- below CIN threshold.
- Looked After children- Requirement ‘virtual school head’ to champion education of children in authority’s care, ‘as if they all attended same school’
Safeguarding The process of protecting children from abuse or neglect, preventing impairment of their health and development, and ensuring they are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care that enables children to have optimum life chances and enter adulthood successfully
Process of protecting individual children identified as either suffering, or likely to suffer, significant harm as a result of abuse or neglect
Wellbeing of children is conceptualised in
relation to the five outcomes first set out in Every Child Matters
Safeguarding in practice means:
- Maintain safe premises- inside and out
- Keep adequate records of;
- child’s details etc
- staff details, inc safe recruitment procedures
- any incident, actions agreed and taken
- Ensure all interactions between adults & children & children & children, in your premises keep children safe
- Be alert to signs & symptoms of abuse- in premises/child’s home
- Know when & to whom to refer concerns- promptly
- Provide information to statutory authorities conducting Sec 47 enquiries
- Participate in CIN/protection plans- offering contextual information & support
- Ensure all staff/family members aware of responsibilities
- Capture above in Child Protection/Safeguarding policy
Role of Clic Sergant social workers Working Together 2013 states all professionals Should, be alert to potential need for early help for child who:
- is disabled and has specific additional needs;
- has special educational needs;
- is a young carer;
- is showing signs of engaging in anti-social or criminal behaviour;
- is in family circumstance presenting challenges for child, such as substance abuse, adult mental health, domestic violence; and/or
- is showing early signs of abuse and/or neglect.
So what is the role of CS SW ? Which of these groups might you encounter?
Signs and indicators
Definitions of child abuse & neglect are historically and culturally specific -they change over time.
- Child abuse and neglect are defined as the persistent failure to meet a child’s essential needs by omitting basic parenting tasks and responsibilities. The basic needs that are not usually met are those for; adequate food, clothing, shelter, cleanliness, stimulation, medical care, safety, education and love and control, in spite of parents having the economic resources to meet those
needs at a basic level. Minty and Pattinson 1994 contrast with………………………………..
- Abuse and neglect are forms of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm, or by failing to act to prevent harm. Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting, by those known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger for example, via the internet. They may be abused by an adult or adults, or another child or children.
Working Together 2013
- There are no societies which condone child abuse but different societies have different child rearing patterns.
- But the previous definition is the standard by which families in the UK are being judged in 2014
- Falling short of the standard does not mean full weight of child protection procedures but may be key group of professionals working with family to raise standards.
- Culture is a ‘difficult’ word – professionals sometimes hide behind it , as do families.
- Cultural ‘’behaviours’’ can be illegal – e.g. forced marriage or female genital mutilation
- Culture is not the prerogative of ‘foreigners’. We all grow up in culture –there is culture in Catford
Children with disabilities
- 4 times more likely to be abused or neglected than non-disabled children.
- 8 times more likely to be neglected;
- 8 times more likely to be physically abused;
- 1 times more likely to be sexually abused
- 9 times more likely to be emotionally abused.
- Overall, 31 % of disabled children had been abused, compared to a prevalence rate of 9 % among the non-disabled child population- It doesn’t Happen to Disabled Children NSPCC 2003
Definitions of categories of Abuse- Working Together 2013
”Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding,
drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces, illness in a child”
”Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or ‘making fun’ of what they say or how they communicate. It may
feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond the child’s developmental capability, as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction. It may involve seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another. It may involve serious bullying (including cyber bullying),causing children frequently to feel frightened or in
danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment of a child, though it may occur alone”
”Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration(for example, rape or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing. They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet). Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children”
”Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical & or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to:
- provide adequate food, clothing and shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment);
- protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger;
- ensure adequate supervision (including the use of inadequate care-givers); or
- ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs” Working Together 2013
A model for analysing concerns; Physical Signs~ PLUS
Behavioural Signs~ Does the behaviour I am seeing add to or take away from my concerns?
Parental history and other factors~ What do I know about this family or other families like them- does it add to or take away from my concerns?
Physical Signs- cuts, bruises, burns, broken bones, torn fraenulum, bites…
*Injury should be consistent with explanation
Behavioural Signs- tearful, clingy, withdrawn or angry, aggressive , angry clusters of behaviour
*Behaviour which is out of ordinary compared to peers
*Change in established patterns of behaviour
Parental and other factors -relationship, housing, immigration, racism, mental health, substance misuse problems etc….History and Stressors
Concerns in your setting
- Injuries inconsistent with explanation- difficulty in questioning ‘caring’ parent too rigorously
- Symptoms of illness ‘masking’ signs of abuse
- Issues re. appropriate levels of supervision –too much or too little
- Aggressive parent -raises question re. child’s experience/ possible presence of domestic violence
- Failure to seek appropriate medical care
- Persistent failure to follow medical advice
- Any others you can think of?
Impacts on children of exposure to domestic violence
Behavioural, social, & emotional problems. Children experiencing domestic violence more likely to exhibit aggressive & antisocial behaviour or be depressed & anxious (Brown & Bzostek, 2003). Other researchers found higher levels of anger, hostility, oppositional behaviour, and disobedience; fear & withdrawal; poor peer, sibling, & social relationships & low self-esteem.
Cognitive & attitudinal problems. Children exposed to domestic violence more likely to experience difficulties in school & score lower on assessments of verbal, motor, & cognitive skills. Slower cognitive development, lack of conflict resolution skills, limited problem solving skills, pro-violence attitudes, & belief in rigid gender stereotypes & male privilege also identified (Brown & Bzostek, 2003; Edleson, 2006).
Long-term problems. Male children exposed to domestic violence more likely to engage in domestic violence as adults; females more likely to be victims (Brown & Bzostek, 2003).Also experience higher levels of adult depression & trauma symptoms (Silvern et al., 1995). Exposure to domestic violence can contribute to premature death, & is risk factor for many of most common causes of death.
Emotional abuse -importance of patterns
Physical Signs- Few physical signs – alopecia, nervous tics & exacerbation of existing conditions
Behavioural Signs -tearful, clingy, withdrawn clusters of behaviours or aggressive, angry, cluster of behaviours, ‘failure to thrive’
*Behaviour which is out of ordinary compared to peers
*Change in established patterns of behaviour
Parental and other factors -Research points to:
- unrealistic expectations
- valuing a child only in so far as they meet a parental expectation
- scape- goating
- creating cognitive distortions
Concerns in your setting
- Sustained and persistent negative attributes directed to child. High levels of critical comments/ lack of warmth observed/ justification of harsh punishments
- Failure to thrive
- Repeated presentations/ patterns
- Inappropriate and inconsistent developmental expectations of the child
- Fabricated or induced illness
- ‘Absent’ parenting- due to work or distractions related to parental mental ill health or substance misuse etc
- Inappropriate emotional response to child’s emotions /being emotionally unavailable and neglectful -lack of nurturing observed- all resulting in insecure attachments
- Physical Signs- any injury to genital area, STD’s, pregnancy
- Behavioural Signs- withdrawn or angry clusters of behaviour, sexual knowledge beyond age or understanding, neglect of personal appearance, no signs- *as before
- Parental and other factors -prevalence, research ( correlation with psychosomatic headaches and stomach aches, eating disorders, risk- taking behaviours and fire –setting) grooming behaviours, disassociation, characteristic family patterns
Concerns in your settings
- Presentations with psycho-somatic symptoms
- Sexualised behaviour or knowledge in child which is out of the ordinary compared with peers
- Association with known sexual offender/ vulnerable parent at risk of exploitation
Possible indicators of sexual exploitation
- Showing signs of sexual activity/abuse, including STDs, terminations and pregnancy scares;
- Going missing frequently/or from young age;
- Bullying in or out of school;
- Previous and sometimes current sexual abuse, neglect and physical abuse, and domestic violence within family;
- Family involvement in sexual exploitation, drugs or alcohol;
- Drug and alcohol misuse use themselves;
- Emotional symptoms, including eating disorders, mood swings and self harm (sometimes very extreme, e .g. genital cutting);
- Involvement in theft, shoplifting, etc. often organised by person exploiting them;
- Preoccupation with mobile phone suggesting being ‘controlled’ (e.g. possession of multiple phones, extreme distress when one is lost or not working);
- Having an older “boyfriend”- in some cases “boyfriend” drives them about.
- Having limited freedom of movement;
- Possession of money and goods not accounted for.
Sexual Offences Act 2003 states age of consent for both hetero and homosexual sex is 16 in England and Wales. Legislation not intended to prosecute mutually consenting sexual activity between under 16s, unless it involves abuse or exploitation. Children under 13 can never legally give consent, so any sexual activity with child aged 12 or under will be subject to the maximum penalties. Legislation gives extra protection to16 and 17 year-olds. It is illegal to take, show or distribute indecent photographs, pay for or arrange sexual services, or for a person in a position of trust (e.g. teachers, care workers and sports coaches) to engage in sexual activity with anyone under the age of 18.
Neglect- importance of patterns
- Physical Signs- pattern of hungry, dirty, ill- kempt behaviours & unmet medical and social needs… failure to thrive
- Behavioural Signs- ‘light goes out’, lack of aspiration…form of abuse which in some ways most severely limits life chances. Neglect is corrosive.
- Parental and other factors- poverty v. emotional impoverishment, cyclical nature
See Professor Olive Stevenson -Neglected Children and Their Families, Blackwell.
Additional potential indicators
Dressed inappropriately for season / weather. Exposure symptoms -recurrent colds, pneumonia, sunburn, frostbite. Extremely dirty/un bathed dirty hair, face, persistent body odour. Severe nappy rash/ other persistent skin disorders or rashes due to lack of hygiene. Inadequately supervised left unattended frequently/ longer than acceptable -or in care of inappropriate care-givers. Unaddressed health problems. constantly squinting at the board in school or complaining of tooth ache. Not receiving adequate nutrition or insufficient quantity / quality of food, resulting in child constantly hungry. Receiving inappropriate food or drink. Malnutrition e.g. undersized, low weight and sallow complexion, and being lethargic. Lacking in adequate shelter – housing unsafe, inadequately heated and unsanitary.
Additional factors related to disability
Working Together defines abuse in context of abuse of non-disabled children. The definition for disabled children has been expanded to include,
- lack of stimulation,
- confinement to room or cot,
- lack of supervision,
- incorrectly given drugs and insensitive, intrusive or disrespectful applications of medical photography and medical rehabilitative programmes.
- ‘abusive practices’ or infringements of disabled children’s rights.
Survey undertaken by BASPCAN, adults with disabilities reported
- force feeding,
- insensitive or intrusive or disrespectful applications of medical photography and medical/ rehabilitative programmes,
- segregation into special schools,
- physical restraint (for example strapping to chairs),
- neglect of medical care (being deprived of hearing aids or wheelchairs on basis that they would become lazy at hearing or walking),
- withdrawal of privileges, financial and property abuse
Abuse And Residential Care
Institutional care may constitute risk factor as indicated by inquiries in recent years documenting physical, sexual and emotional abuse and neglect of children in residential settings.
Lack of ‘advocates’ increases vulnerability. Numbers of ‘staff’ providing care increases risk. Isolation and emotional deprivation make people more vulnerable & may have fewer opportunities for development of healthy relations in community.
Additional potential risks to children experiencing cancer Denial Blame Over-protection Parental preoccupation with own needs Over investment in maintaining sick role. What has been your experience?
Involving the Multi-agency team Focus on nurture- some professionals may feel; Their focus is on making children better and struggle to see abuse – Rule of Optimism* Child/Family has already experienced ‘ill fortune’ so further ‘bad things’ unlikely. Difficulty holding two conflicting mental pictures ‘ victim’ and abuser’- Selective Interpretation *Abuse of children occurs in all walks of life- no respecter of age,gender, class, race,geography ….
Child will tell them if something is wrong –why would they? how well do they know you? what opportunities are there?
Fear being wrong- no one should be dealing with a safeguarding matter on their own
Feel it will harm their relationship with the parent – how effective is the relationship is it if the child continues to be harmed? Sec 1 CA 1989- Child’s welfare paramount
*Duncan, Reder and Gray –Beyond Blame 1993 London Routledge
Part 8 Review Brighton and Hove A.C.P.C. Regarding JAS, aged 4, who died on 24.12.1999
‘’ Social Workers exist because there are aspects of our society the rest of us do not want to deal with. They are our eyes, our ears and our judgement when it comes to our care of our society’s vulnerable children. They are there to ensure that such children have access to safe, nurturing, fulfilling, environments where they can achieve their full potential. To do their job effectively, must on our behalf, ask awkward questions and always be thinking the unthinkable. And if in the course of doing their job, some people feel intruded upon and scrutinised it is (in my view) an acceptable price to pay for safeguarding the welfare of children, who are ultimately, in all our care.’’ Alyson Leslie 2001
Who is responsible: ‘Not my responsibility’ ‘Might damage my relationship’
Fear is that by acting on concerns patient/family will withdraw and not be monitored
And if monitoring leads to clear concerns…..what sort of relationship is it if it cannot be used to discuss issues concerns about a child’s welfare?
Thresholds -Do we expect more of parents of sick or disabled children ? What are the issues?
Legal framework The legal framework for these levels of concern derives from the Children Act 1989 and Children Act 2004
- CA1989 recognises 4 categories of children;
- children who do not require intervention
- children in need (Sec 17)
- children in need of protection (Sec 47)
- children who are looked after (Sec 20 or Sec 31)
Section 1 CA1989
When a Court determines any question with respect to the upbringing of a child, the administration of a child’s property or the application of any income arising from it,
the child’s welfare shall be the Court’s paramount consideration
Section 17 ( child in need section)
“It shall be the general duty of every Local Authority to; Safeguard and promote the welfare* of children in their area who are in need and so far as it is consistent with that duty to promote the upbringing of such children by their families”
* Not defined, requires exercise of professional judgement
Section 17 (10) Definition of Child in Need
Child in need defined by Section 17(10) as one who; is unlikely to achieve or maintain, or have the opportunity of achieving or maintaining, a *reasonable standard of health or development without the provision of services by a Local Authority health or development is likely to be significantly impaired*, or further impaired, without the provision of such services, or is disabled
Section 47 ( child protection section)
“Where a Local Authority has reasonable cause to suspect* that a child who lives, or is found in their area is, or is likely to, suffer significant harm*, they shall; make or cause to be made such enquiries as they consider necessary to enable them to decide what action to take to safeguard and promote the child’s welfare’’
Section 31- conferencing and care proceedings
(2)(a)that the child concerned is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm; and
(b) that the harm, or likelihood of harm, is attributable to
(i) the care given to the child, or likely to be given to him if the order were not made, not being what it would be reasonable to expect a parent to give to him; or
(ii) the child’s being beyond parental control.
(3)No care order or supervision order may be made with respect to a child who has reached the age of seventeen (or sixteen, in the case of a child who is married).
Thresholds- do we expect more of parents with child with illness/disability?
Court may only make a care order or supervision order if it is satisfied—
(a) that THE child concerned is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm; and
(b) that the harm, or likelihood of harm, is attributable to—
(i) the care given to the child, or likely to be given to him if the order were not made, not being what it would be reasonable to expect A parent to give to him; or
(ii) the child’s being beyond parental control.
THE – this specific child (who may have disabilities or illness )
A – reasonable care to be given by a generic parent/ any reasonable parent
Thus – The child with cancer is to be given a level of care that any reasonable parent would give a child experiencing cancer
Parents Perspective Some Guiding Principles -The Challenge of Partnership HMSO
- Treat all family members as you would wish to be treated, with dignity and respect
- Ensure that family members know that the child’s safety and welfare must be given first priority, but that each of them has the right to a courteous, caring and professionally competent service
- Do not infringe privacy more than is necessary to safeguard the welfare of the child.
- Respect confidentiality, unless to do so would compromise the safety or welfare of the child
- Be clear about your power to intervene and the purpose of professional involvement at each stage.
- Be aware of the effects of your power to intervene and the impact of what you say and do, on the family.
- Listen to the concerns of the family; take care to understand their perspective before making decisions about interventions.
- Think about child’s place within family and community, taking account of cultural and religious contexts.
- Consider family’s strengths as well as their difficulties.
- Make sure they know their rights, responsibilities and consequences of any actions they may take.
- Use plain, jargon free language appropriate to age and culture. Explain unavoidable technical or professional terminology. You may need interpreters.
- Be open and honest about your concerns and responsibilities, intentions and limitations, without being defensive.
- Allow them time to take in all that has been said.
- Distinguish between personal feelings, values, prejudices and professional responsibilities, talk to your colleagues
- If a mistake or misinterpretation has been made –
- Acknowledge family’s distress.
Making a referral to CSC
- Make sure you focus on the impact on the child
- References to ‘parental lifestyle’ may be important but do not convey the ‘experience of the child’
- Be explicit about the role you feel CSC can play –what do you want to achieve for the child & why?
- What do you think might happen without CSC involvement ?
- Clearly separate out risks – which are matters that are causing or could cause significant harm to child from concerns which are about child’s quality of life which could be improved by some purposeful intervention.
- Escalate your concerns –in writing – Social worker/ Team Manager/ Service Manager
- Ask for a written explanation of the reasons the referral is not accepted
Attending a conference Strengthening Families and Signs of Safety models
Signs of Safety model Created in Western Australia during the 1990s – approach is based on the use of Strength Based interview techniques, and draws upon techniques from Solution Focused Brief therapy (SFBT). Aims to;
- Work collaboratively and in partnership with families and children
- Conduct risk assessments and produce action plans for increasing safety and reducing risk and danger
- Focusing on strengths, resources and networks that the family have.
- Cited as example of positive practice by Professor Eileen Munro
|Understand the position of each family member||Seek to identify the values, beliefs, and meaningsthe family members perceive in their stories. This assists the worker to respond to the uniqueness of each case and to move toward plans the family will enact|
|Find exceptions to the maltreatment||Search for exceptions to the problem. This creates hope for workers and families by proving that the problem does not always exist. Exceptions may also indicate solutions that have worked in the past.Where no exceptions exist, the worker may be alerted to a more serious problem|
|Discover family strengths and resources||Identify and highlight positive aspects of the family. This prevents the problems from overwhelming and discouraging everyone involve|
|Focus on goals||Elicit the family’s goals to improve the safety of the child and their life in general. Compare these with the agency’s goals. Use the family’s ideas wherever possible. Where the family is unable to suggest any constructive goals, danger to the child is probably increased|
|Scale safety and progress||Identify the family member’s sense of safety and progress throughout the case. This allows clear comparisons with worker’s judgments|
|Assess willingness,confidence and capacity||Determine the family’s willingness and ability to carry out plans before trying to implement them|
Examples of questions used in Signs of safety model
- “Have there been any times when you have been in a rage but resisted the urge to hit your daughter?”
- “You said earlier on that it’s not always like this. Can you tell me more about the other times?”
- “When was the last time the problem happened? How have you managed to avoid it since then?”
- “What was different about the times you felt like you handled the situation well?”
- “What do you like about being a parent? What have you learned from the experience?”
- “How can we help you make things better and make your child safer?”
- “Let’s suppose we could do anything to make your child safer. What would that be?”
- “When we ask you son what would make him feel safer, what do you think he will say?”
- “where 10 means that you are certain this sort of incident won’t happen again and your son is safe, and 0 means that you think there is every likelihood this will happen again, how would you rate the situation at the moment?”
Strengthening families model In 2000, Rob Sawyer and Suzanne Lohrbach (Olmsted County Child & Family Services in Minnesota) developed a family case planning conference (FCPC) that built upon the ideas of Andrew Turnell as well as the general principles of restorative practice and the Family Group Conference process.
Aims to address;
- Heavy focus on information-sharing, there is often insufficient time spent on planning at child protection conferences
- Parents usually take a fairly passive role at conferences and have little impact on decisions made.
- Lack of parental involvement and insufficient focus on planning means that plans are sometimes unfeasible. Families and/or professionals may be unwilling/unable to co-operate with them
- Once particular decisions are reached at a conference, they often go unchecked at subsequent meetings/reviews. Professional views or opinions are therefore too frequently unquestioned.
- The Child Protection Process is often seen by parents as a test of their ‘willingness to co-operate’. Even when they believe things that are said at the conference to be incorrect, they therefore find it extremely difficult to challenge them.
Definition of Resilience
Quality which helps the individual better withstand life’s adversity, or life’s knocks – the ‘’springybackness’’
- Multiple social roles
- Making the most of education
- Positive leisure pursuits
- Stable base
- Involvement in expressive/ creative arts
- Taking care of others
- Taking responsibility